Authentication and Key Agreement (AKA) is a security protocol used on 3G networks. AKA is also used for the unique password compilation mechanism for Digest access authentication. AKA is a challenge-based mechanism that uses symmetrical cryptography. In addition, MTCDs are generally low-power devices with no possibility of high computation. This requires an authentication protocol with less computational complexity. In addition, an additional problem with cellular TCM is the presence of devices on cellular and interior edges such as underground garages, shopping malls, hospitals, etc., where network connectivity can be poor. Similarly, some devices should not be mobile (for example. B surveillance camera), while others can be very mobile (for example. B, equipment on trains or buses). Therefore, the authentication procedure must take into account the following factors: (i) Providing TTMs that cause a signaling overload (ii) The deployment environment of MTCDs (i.e.
indoors/outside) (iii) the mobility behaviour of MTCDs (i.e. stationary/mobile) (iv) Computational and Storage capabilities of MTCDs These probabilities are taken into account in the performance analysis of the proposed protocol compared to existing protocols. Each of the above metrics was calculated for different protocols with the following formula: The amount of metric required for groups for successful authentication, the number of authentication processes, the amount of metric required to authenticate groups, and the amount of metric needed to re-authenticate groups. In this article, the authors propose the group hierarchical protocol for mutual authentication and key agreement (HGMAKA) for MTC, which will be adapted to both current LTE-A networks and future 5G networks. The main contributions of this document are: (1) Introducing a hierarchical approach as opposed to the first MTCD or existing group leader approach for the implementation of the group AKA between a group of MTCDs and the central network. (2) Adopt a hierarchical architecture in small cells in accordance with 5G architecture to reduce signal load by authentication compared to macrocellar architecture in existing literature. (3) Introducing route integrity verification for authentication messages to avoid authentication of batch authentication due to errors. (4) Comparison of performances with ten other group diagrams in the literature. For a group size of 100, there is therefore 0.6358 probabilities of need for new group authentication and 0.3642 that new group authentication is not necessary. If the number of groups decreases, resulting in an increase in the number of MTCDs in each group, the likelihood of re-authentication increases (due to an error). The number of message exchanges that take place for authentication cycles for a different number of groups in existing group protocols, under the proposed HGMAKA protocol, was taken into account.
Only group protocols are considered benefits of group schematics, unlike group patterns already presented in the existing literature. Due to the hierarchical nature of the aggregation, the HGMAKA protocol allows for large group sizes, one having been compared to a single large group with a total population of 10,000 MTCD as members and the other, consisting of several smaller groups. Machine Type Communication (MTC)  also known as M2M communication refers to communication between entities without human intervention. This communication mainly involves collecting data by the MTCD and transferring it to an MTC server that processes the data and initiates certain actions.