On 25 November 2018, the UK and the EU reached a 599-page withdrawal agreement, a Brexit deal that touches on issues such as citizens` rights, the Divorce Act and the Irish border. MPs voted 432-202 in favour of rejecting the agreement, the biggest defeat for a government in the House of Commons in recent history. The UK government and the other 27 EU member states approve the draft agreement. The withdrawal agreement provided for an extension of the transition period to avoid the “non-deal” of Brexit if no agreement between the EU and the UK could be reached by 31 December 2020. Such an extension should have been requested until July 2020. Following a statement by Prime Minister Boris Johnson that he would not use this option and that 11 months would be enough to reach a comprehensive agreement, the British government added a provision to the 2020 Law to prohibit a British minister who wants such an extension, and no extension was sought. This is the third time the British Parliament has rejected the agreement. Britain has until 12 April 2019 to decide how to proceed: on 22 October, the British Parliament agreed to review the Brexit act. But she decided it took longer than the British Prime Minister had proposed. This means that it is no longer possible to withdraw with an agreement on the planned date of Brexit, 31 October.

The Brexit deal will not come into force until the Brexit law is passed by the British Parliament. The EU and the UK reach a provisional agreement on citizens` rights and the financial regime of Brexit. After an unprecedented vote on 4 December 2018, MEPs ruled that the UK government was not respecting Parliament because it refused to give Parliament full legal advice on the consequences of its proposed withdrawal terms. [29] The focus of the consultation was on the legal effect of the “backstop” agreement on Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland and the rest of the United Kingdom with regard to the CUSTOMS border between the EU and the United Kingdom and its consequences on the Good Friday agreement that ended the unrest in Northern Ireland, including whether the United Kingdom would be insured , in line with the proposals, to be able to leave the EU in a practical sense. The UK will not just abandon its trade agreements with the EU: in one of the above scenarios, it will likely lose the trade agreements concluded by the 63-third country bloc, as well as progress in negotiating other agreements. Replacing them and adding new ones is an uncertain prospect. In an interview with Politico in September 2017, Trade Minister Liam Fox said his office – founded in July 2016 – had rejected some third countries who wanted to negotiate free trade agreements because it was unable to negotiate. “Progress made by the UK in updating EU trade agreements,” page 20. Consulted on October 8, 2019. The withdrawal agreement is complemented by the political declaration setting the framework for future relations between the European Union and the statement by Her Majesty`s Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland on the application of the “Democratic Approval in Northern Ireland” provision of the Northern Ireland Protocol.

The aim of the political declaration is to define “the parameters of an ambitious, broad, thorough and flexible partnership on trade and economic cooperation, with a comprehensive and balanced free trade agreement on the merits.” It sets the tone and provides the framework for detailed and complex negotiations which, after the UK and the EU, aim to reach agreement on a free trade agreement.